Child Labor Hazardous Occupations

The state definition of child labor hazardous occupations is based on federal law. For additional information and clarification visit Youth & Labor - Hazardous Jobs  at the Wage and Hour division of the U.S. Department of Labor.

Minors Under the Age of 18
The Secretary of the U.S. Department of Labor lists the occupations declared hazardous for all workers under the age of 18 at Youth & Labor - Hazardous Jobs.

Minors 14 and 15 years of age (State and Federal Law)
The Commissioner of Labor has determined the following jobs will not interfere with the schooling, health, and well-being of 14- and 15-year-olds and therefore may be performed by such youth. Any job not specifically permitted for 14 and 15 year-olds, as listed below, is prohibited.

  • Office and Clerical Work, including operation of office machines.
  • Work Of An Intellectual or Artistically Creative Nature such as but not limited to computer programming, the writing of software, teaching or performing as a tutor, serving as a peer counselor or teacher’s assistant, singing, the playing of a musical instrument, and drawing, as long as such employment complies with all the other provisions contained in herein and state law.
  • Cooking with electric or gas grills that do not involve cooking over an open flame and with deep fat fryers that are equipped with and utilize devices that automatically lower and raise the baskets into and out of the oil or grease. Cooking with equipment such as rotisseries, broilers, pressurized equipment including fryolators, and cooking devices that operate at extremely high temperatures such as “Neico broilers” is not permitted.
  • Cashiering, Selling, Modeling, Art Work, Work In Advertising Departments, Window Trimming and Comparative Shopping.
  • Price Marking and Tagging by Hand or by Machine. Assembling Orders, Packing and Shelving.
  • Bagging and Carrying Out Customer Orders.
  • Errand And Delivery Work by foot, bicycle, and public transportation, except such youth may not be employed by a public messenger service.
  • Cleanup Work, including the use of vacuum cleaners and floor waxers, and the maintenance of grounds, but not including the use of power-driven mowers, cutters, trimmers, edgers, or similar equipment.
  • Kitchen Work and other work involved in preparing and serving food and beverages including operating machines and devices used in performing such work along with entering walk-in freezers or meat coolers for the purpose of retrieving food items stored therein. Examples of permitted machines and devices include, but are not limited to, dishwashers, toasters, dumbwaiters, popcorn poppers, milk shake blenders, coffee grinders, automatic coffee machines, devices used to maintain the temperature of prepared foods (such as warmers, steam tables, and heat lamps), and microwave ovens that are used only to warm prepared food and do not have the capacity to warm above 140 °F.
  • Cleaning Kitchen Equipment. Minors are permitted to clean kitchen equipment (not otherwise prohibited), remove oil or grease filters, pour oil or grease through filters, and move receptacles containing hot grease or hot oil, but only when the equipment, surfaces, containers and liquids do not exceed a temperature of 100°F.
  • Cleaning Vegetables and Fruits, and the Wrapping, Sealing, Labeling, Weighing, Pricing, and Stocking of items, including Vegetables, Fruits, And Meats, when performed in areas physically separate from freezer or meat cooler.
  •  Loading onto Motor Vehicles and the Unloading from Motor Vehicles of the light, non-power-driven, hand tools and personal protective equipment that the minor will use as part of his or her employment at the work site; and the loading onto motor vehicles and the unloading from motor vehicles of personal items such as a back pack, a lunch box, or a coat that the minor is permitted to take to the work site. Such light tools would include, but not be limited to, rakes, hand-held clippers, shovels, and brooms. Such light tools would not include items like trash, sales kits, promotion items or items for sale, lawn mowers, or other power-driven lawn maintenance equipment. Such minors would not be permitted to load or unload safety equipment such as barriers, cones, or signage.
  • The Occupation of Lifeguard (15-year-olds but not 14-year-olds) at traditional swimming pools and water amusement parks (including such water park faculties as wave pools, lazy rivers, specialized activity areas, and baby pools, but not including the elevated areas of water slides) when properly trained and certified in aquatics and water safety by the American Red Cross or a similar certifying organization. No youth under 16 years of age may be employed as a lifeguard at a natural environment such as an ocean side beach, lake, pond, river, quarry, or pier.
  • Work in Connection with Cars and Trucks if confined to:
    • Dispensing gasoline and oil,
    •  Courtesy service on premises of gasoline service station.
    •  Car cleaning, washing, and polishing by hand.
  • Work In Connection with Riding Inside Passenger Compartments of Motor Vehicles except as prohibited by state and these regulation, when a significant reason for the minor being a passenger in the vehicle is for the purpose of performing work in connection with the transporting—or assisting in the transporting of—other persons or property. Each minor riding as a passenger in a motor vehicle must have his or her own seat in the passenger compartment; each seat must be equipped with a seat belt or similar restraining device; and the employer must instruct the minors that such belts or other devices must be used. In addition, each driver transporting the young workers must hold a valid state driver’s license for the type of vehicle being driven and, if the driver is under the age of 18, his or her employment must comply with the provisions of the state’s driver license.
  • Work Experience and Career Exploration Programs (WECEP)
    • For 14- and 15-year-old participants in approved school-supervised and school-administered WECEPs. Enrollees in WECEP may be employed:
      • During school hours.
      • For as many as 3 hours on a school day, including Fridays.
      • For as many as 23 hours in a school week.
  • The state educational agency must obtain approval from the Commissioner of Labor before operating a WECEP program.
  • Work-Study Program (WSP)
    • 14- and 15-year-old students participating in a Federal or State Department of Education approved school-supervised and school administered WSP. Participating students must be enrolled in a college preparatory curriculum and identified by authoritative personnel of the school as being able to benefit from the WSP.
    • Employment of students in an authorized WSP shall be confined to not more than 18 hours in any one week when school is in session, a portion of which may be during school hours, in accordance with the following formula that is based upon a continuous four-week cycle. In three of the four weeks, the participant is permitted to work during school hours on only one day per week, and for no more than for eight hours on that day. During the remaining week of the four-week cycle, such minor is permitted to work during school hours on no more than two days, and for no more than for eight hours on each of those two days. The employment of such minors would still be subject to the remaining time of day and number of hours standards contained in these regulations.